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Altitude and Compressors
Draining Liquid From Compressed Air/Gases

Armstrong International, Inc.

<<Moisture is always present in compressed air, and oil may be present at some points. For overall system efficiency and to prolong the life of gaskets, hoses and air tools, you must remove excess moisture and oil as quickly as possible. An efficient and well designed total system requires: intercoolers to cool the air before each compressor stage; aftercoolers to ensure the air is at ambient or below room temperature before being introduced into the system; separators to knock down suspended moisture droplets or fog; dryers, filters and drain traps to discharge the liquid from this equipment and system piping with minimum loss of air. >>

Air Compressor Information

CompressorWise.com

<<CompressorWise.com is an independent research and publishing company established to help compressor operators save money and get the most from their compressed air systems. We use the Internet to deliver information about the best people and companies in the compressor business. Our information comes from Mechanics, Maintenance Supervisors, Buyers, Plant Managers and Engineers who have learned from experience which products and vendors can be trusted to provide the best value and service. We have organized their wisdom to share with you Ė making you compressor wise!>>

How to Optimize an Instrument Air System

Plant Engineering Magazine

REGISTRATION REQUIRED

<<The primary motive force for the actuation of most control valves used in plants is compressed air. However, maintenance of compressed air source equipment and distribution piping can be easily overlooked on a day-to-day basis due to more pressing maintenance challenges. The quality of a compressed air system can be compromised by the principle of "out of sight, out of mind.">>

Transmission Technology: Pressurization Fundamentals

Andrew Corporation

<<Operational transmission line is critical to broadcast operations, however, it is often overlooked or neglected until it is too late. Performance of air dielectric transmission lines can be greatly reduced when the lines are filled with ambient air, moisture in the air can condense on the inside of the transmission lines. To prevent electrical performance degradation transmission line should be maintained under dry gas pressure. Unfortunately, many of today's transmission lines are not pressurized. .>>

Improving Compressed Air System Efficiency

Clean Dry Air, Inc.

<<This article provides a step-by-step guide to evaluating and identifying cost reductions in compressed air systems. The ultimate goal is using the least amount of compressed air at the lowest pressure with a quality that satisfies your total compressed air system requirements. As with many things, proper equipment selection and conservation techniques are the keys to efficiency and savings.>>

Pressure Losses in Compressed Air Piping

Clean Dry Air, Inc.

<<This loss is due to wall friction and in most cases, to air turbulence causing internal gas friction. It is the nature of the beast. Getting compressed air to flow and keep flowing in a pipe there must be a pressure difference between the two points. Pressure loss occurs along the pipe roughly proportional to the distance the air has traveled. So why donít we design compressed air piping systems to absolutely minimize pressure drop? Well the reason is that piping designer must balance pressure loss against the first cost to install the system. Piping economics can become quite complex and will be addressed in a separate article.>>

Investment-Grade Compressed Air System Audit, Analysis, and Upgrade in a Pulp and Paper Mill

Unicade Inc.

<<An investment-grade compressed air audit, analysis, design, and upgrade in an industrial facility requires a thorough understudying of original design basis, current problem definition, goal settings, load assessment, base case model development, and an ability to conduct unlimited "what if" analysis to determine the cost-effective efficiency improvement measures. Most successful projects are justified using energy savings and non-energy benefits. A life-cycle cost analysis will help the customer focus on cost of owning, operating, and maintaining the compressed air motor system over itís useful life. A software application that easily integrates and calculates interactive impact of process and mechanical variables on electric power use would be of immense help in conducting such "systems analysis" of motor systems. This article presents a real-life successful project, with an investment of about $0.75 million dollars, documented energy savings of 2,935,000 kWh/year, and other non-energy benefits that eventually justified the project. >>

Draining Liquid From Compressed Air / Gases

Armstrong International, Inc.

<<Moisture is always present in compressed air, and oil may be present at some points. For overall system efficiency and to prolong the life of gaskets, hoses and air tools, you must remove excess moisture and oil as quickly as possible. An efficient and well designed total system requires: intercoolers to cool the air before each compressor stage; aftercoolers to ensure the air is at ambient or below room temperature before being introduced into the system; separators to knock down suspended moisture droplets or fog; dryers, filters and drain traps to discharge the liquid from this equipment and system piping with minimum loss of air. >>

Compressor Pipework

AirInfo UK (There are a number of other good pages related to air compressors at this site)

<<A pipework system can be a major cost in any compressed air system due to leaks, once installed most pipelines are quite happily forgotten about, may have bits added or moved but the bulk of the original line is frequently left alone.We look at the complete pipeline system and how to monitor and improve it.>>

Compressor Vibration

ARIEL Corporation

<<Every machine vibrates as it operates. No matter how rigidly a machine is mounted, the machine and all attached structures will experience some undesirable motion caused by various forces. These forces are usually related to the movement of various parts within the machine. If this vibration-related movement becomes too great, damage to the machine will result. Vibration can be caused by a variety of conditions including bent shafts, unbalance in rotating parts, worn or bent gears, damaged bearings, misaligned couplings or bearings, electromagnetic forces, etc.In compressors, however, the most common causes are unbalance in rotating parts and abnormal aerodynamic forces. Ariel takes special care in the design and manufacturing processes to prevent these conditions from occurring.>>

Reciprocating Compressors: Online Sizing Program

Process Associates


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