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Drainage System Components

Washington Department of Ecology

<<There are several drainage components that are fairly common in most drainage systems. This section introduces some basic components that are part of the drainage systems described in the following section - Drainage Systems. Successful construction involves selecting the appropriate materials for the collection, conveyance, and discharge requirements of your system. Attention to proper capacity and durability of each drainage material is critical. The performance of your system will be improved by using good construction techniques and by performing routine periodic maintenance.>>

Industrial Close-Range Photogrammetry: A Dormant Technology Erupts

As Built Data, Inc.

<<Over the last four to five years, a proven and mature technology has been reborn. Photogrammetry is the science of obtaining dimensions from photographs. Close-range photogrammetry, originally used in industrial facilities in the late 1970’s, has found new life in the 1990’s. Initially abandoned because of inadequate or expensive computer workstations, close-range photogrammetry is having a resurgence in use with today’s high-powered workstation environments. These high-end computer workstations allow the calculation of the complex photogrammetric algorithms at the desktop within seconds.>>

"Carving As-Built Plans with a Laser Cannon"

Bentley Systems, Incorporated

<<Obtaining as-built plant information is always challenging–and sometimes dangerous. Detroit Edison and its subcontractors Raytheon and DB Riley are using MicroStation and the Cyrax 3D laser scanner to automate the task in a revolutionary way. The task Detroit Edison assigned to Raytheon and DB Riley was daunting: Create as-built plans as the first stage of a major redesign of the Monroe Power Plant in southwest Michigan. The engineering team proposed a novel solution. They chose to use the Cyrax 3D laser scanning systems from Cyra Technologies to create the as-built plans, avoiding much of the dangerous task of physically measuring the plant. The plan worked. Raytheon was able to rapidly create a precise as-built 3D model of the existing plant using 3D data obtained from the Cyrax scanner, ported to MicroStation. Using the Cyrax system, engineers cut down on design time dramatically and reduced the risk of construction errors by obtaining exact measurements without manual data entry.>>

Improving Piping Design, Fabrication and Installation


<<Problem: The U.S. process, power, engineering and construction industries seek to improve the design and delivery of constructed facilities through advanced uses of information technologies, e.g., CADD, CAM, ERP (computer-aided design and drafting, computer-aided manufacturing, enterprise resource planning), and the integration of information systems, e.g., automation of the exchange and sharing of information among systems. Although many of the leading engineering organizations have adopted 3D modeling and information integration technologies, the capabilities and benefits of these technologies are not being exploited fully in the fabrication, inspection and construction phases of projects. The many computerized systems in use for the design and construction of facilities can be integrated only at great cost because of their incompatible proprietary representations of information. Standard, neutral information representations and exchange methods are needed that allow system vendors to be innovative and yet allow system users to exchange and share information about industrial facilities automatically. The evolving international standard ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) 10303 -Product Data Representation and Exchange, known as STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product model data), is providing a base technology for developing information exchange protocols.>>

Piping Vibration

Carmagen Engineering

<<There's no question about it - excessive piping vibration can cause real problems. Threaded connections can loosen. Flanges can start leaking. Pipes can be knocked off their supports. An in extreme cases, a pipe fatigue failure can occur. But when is vibration excessive? Vibration is obviously too much if it causes a failure, but hindsight is 20/20. What about having to decide if vibration that is occurring is too much to tolerate? What about having to decide if vibration could be a problem while a piping system is being designed? The entire subject of piping vibration cannot be discussed in this article, but I will highlight several items to consider.>>

Flexible Operations Doesn't Always Mean Piping Flexibility

Carmagen Engineering

<<Several piping flexibility analyses were recently made for a large East Coast refinery to help design a number of bypasses. The bypasses were being installed to provide additional operational flexibility. However this additional flexibility in operations doesn't necessarily increase the piping flexibility of the system. This means that piping flexibility stresses and heat exchanger nozzle stresses may exceed allowable values if the new bypass lines are not properly designed.>>

Control of Piping Loads Imposed on Load-Sensitive Equipment

Carmagen Engineering

<<Properly designed piping systems keep stresses in the pipe wall itself within established allowable limits, and ensure that end point reaction loads do not overload connected equipment nozzles. While avoiding excessive equipment nozzle loads is important in all cases, this is especially true for piping systems connected to pumps, compressors and steam turbines. Excessive piping loads in these cases can cause high machine vibration, shaft misalignment, and coupling failures. These problems result in increased maintenance costs, and can lead to equipment and plant shutdowns. This series of articles will discuss suggestions for the design and installation of such machinery piping systems which will reduce the likelihood of nozzle overloads.>>

Piping Design Considerations to Control Loads on Load-Sensitive Equipment, Part 1

Carmagen Engineering

<<This article discusses one important piping design consideration, temperature. Future articles will discuss other design considerations. The piping system will have a design temperature associated with it, and this determines its stress and end point reaction loads. What's special about rotating equipment piping systems regarding temperature?>>

Piping Design Considerations to Control Loads on Load-Sensitive Equipment, Part 2

Carmagen Engineering

<<Piping must be designed and installed such that there is essentially zero forces and moments applied to the machinery nozzles when the system is not operating and is at ambient temperature. In order to accomplish this, sufficient pipe supports must be installed near the machine to carry the weight load. In addition, close flange alignment tolerances must be specified in the system design specification and adhered to during piping installation. >>

Improving Air System Efficiency

R.S. Foss

<<When sizing pipe for a compressed air system, keep in mind that without resistance to flow, there is no flow. Some pressure drop or some mass flow resistance is necessary. The amount of pressure drop only needs to be hundredths of a psig for the system to work, but it can be very high - and, therefore, inefficient - if you size the pipe incorrectly for the required flow and pressure. Both the energy efficiency and cost of the system are function of your decisions.>>

Process Plant Design Tips


<<Tips submitted by website visitors>>

Refining Demystified (includes photos and diagrams - excellent)

Ashland Inc.

<<Spread out over a number of acres, a refinery is a remarkable maze of metal, machinery and manpower. Towers, tanks, process vessels, pipelines, pumps, heat exchangers and compressors are just some of the components of a modern refinery. Operators, engineers, researchers, technicians, craftsmen and maintenance personnel are among those needed to keep a refinery running round-the-clock. A refinery consists of a number of different units, each with a specific purpose, integrated into a processing sequence.>>

Pre-Installation Planning Critical to Laying Marlin Lines

<<Detailed planning was critical to the successful installation of subsea crude oil and natural gas export pipelines for BP Amoco’s Marlin Development Project in the Gulf of Mexico. The project, formerly Amoco Marlin, involved laying a 10-in. oil line along with a 14-in. gas line from a Tension Leg Platform (TLP) in Viosca Knoll 915 to facilities located in Main Pass 260 and 225. Water depths along the route ranged from 3,240 ft at the TLP to 300 ft at the Main Pass location. By design, the lines were laid parallel to each other at a nominal separation of 200 ft from the TLP steel catenary riser until they diverge in the northwestern quadrant of Viosca Knoll 738. The 10-in. line measures 21.8 mi and the 14-in. line is slightly shorter at 18.6 mi. To minimize risk and maximize economic considerations, early planning and engineering for the pipelines were undertaken in 1996, 20 months ahead of pipelaying.>>

Minimizing Piping Friction Losses In Low-Pressure Regulating Valves

Control Engineering

<<One common type of installation for a pressure regulating valve is where the pressure is reduced to a very low value to supply or pressurize the system downstream of the valve. In the case of gas blanketing systems, system pressure could be reduced to as as much as one inch of water column. Liquid system losses may be several pounds per square inch. While these systems perform different functions, they have one feature in common--reduced pressure. Fluids flow by means of a pressure differential. If the system is to function, the backpressure must be less than the pressure being controlled at the valve. When designing and installing such a system, the engineer must specify the downstream piping and components that will keep the fluid resistance low. In no case can the valve be set for a pressure less than the backpressure created by the downstream.Backpressure from downstream piping and components is usually not an issue with systems operating at higher outlet pressures. But, it can be a problem with systems operating below 10 psi. As the pressure decreases, the potential for piping system-induced problems increases.>>

Pipe Fitting and Valve Symbols

Parametric Technology Corporation

The Ship Draughtsman

Colin Tipping

<<Since the development of iron shipbuilding in the late nineteenth century, ship draughtsmen have made a considerable contribution to the growth of the industry both nationally and regionally. Because of their expertise in design and construction, they were also able to move into other disciplines, to take up senior management positions, and provide staff for the world’s marine classification and regulatory bodies. With the considerable technical advances and commercial and political changes in the industry since 1945, the job of ship draughtsman underwent radical changes. This paper, based on the author’s personal experience in the Tyne and Wear shipyards of the north-east of England, will examine the technical factors to show how this particular group of shipyard workers changed from skilled craftsmen to a less demanding role.>>

Piping Flow Rate Design for Retail Refueling Facilities

Fiberglass Tank and Pipe Institute

<<Piping selection considerations for a retail motor fuel dispensing facility should include a flow rate criteria to fuel vehicles at the maximum Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable of 10 gallons per minute during peak traffic periods. High-volume consumers (e. g., commuters and commercial accounts), are sensitive to the time it takes to refuel their vehicles, and they represent a significant market segment. While hydraulic flow rate calculations may be made on a site-specific basis, the purpose of this paper is to describe the major factors that reduce flow rate, how the three most common materials used to manufacture piping affect these flow rate factors, and cite flow rate "rules of thumb" for small and large retail vehicle refueling facilities based on the most commonly used piping systems.>>

Manufacturing Standards Overview (ASTM, DIN, ANSI, ASME, MSS, EN, ISO, NACE, UNS)

Santrade Steel

<<There is a large number of standards – international and national – that cover pipe, tube and fittings. A brief description of the most common standards is given below.>>

What is the pressure at the end of a pipe which is discharging to atmosphere?

Optimal Systems Limited

Pressure Vessel and Piping Discussion Group

A message board hosted by ASME with a collection of posts dating back to 1997

<<...a place you can go to talk about pressure vessel design, piping system design, computer analysis packages for PV&P, the latest research, the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, courses, and so on...>>

CAESAR II -- Pipe Stress Analysis


<<CAESAR II is the Pipe Stress Analysis standard against which all others are measured and compared. The CAESAR II spreadsheet input technique revolutionized the way piping models are built, modified, and verified. CAESAR II was the first pipe stress program specifically designed for the PC environment. The interactive capabilities permit rapid evaluation of both input and output, thereby melding seamlessly into the "design - analyze" iteration cycle.>>

Marine Piping Basics

China Lake Fleet Help Desk

<<Piping systems are the arteries which carry the various "lifebloods" of the ship.Since the flow of fluid through these piping systems must be regulated and monitored, various types of valves are used to control the direction, flow rate, and pressure of fluids flowing through the various piping systems on board the ship. Pressure gauges and thermometers are used to monitor the operation of these piping systems. In order to maintain valves, gauges, and piping systems in their optimum operating condition, various maintenance systems are also needed.>>

Venturi Principle

Drinking Water and Backflow Prevention

Atmospheric Vacuum Breaker Operation

Drinking Water and Backflow Prevention

<<The purpose of the atmospheric vacuum breaker is to prevent a siphon from allowing a contaminant or pollutant into the potable water system. This plumbing system safety valve is considered protection from high hazard or toxic substances, and may be used for low-hazard materials as well. There are three flow conditions for the atmospheric vacuum breaker. The user obtains water by opening a valve to the potable supply allowing water to flow through the device. The user will then close the potable water supply and the device will drain. Finally, if a siphon or loss of pressure occurs in the supply piping, the inlet valve will open allowing atmosphere into the outlet piping to prevent a reversal of flow or "backsiphonage" to the potable supply.>>

Cross-Connection Control (Backflow Prevention)

University of Southern California

<<The term backflow means any unwanted flow of used or non-potable water or substance from any domestic, industrial or institutional piping system into the pure, potable water distribution system. The direction of flow under these conditions is in the reverse direction from that intended by the system and normally assumed by the owner of the system. Backflow may be caused by numerous specific conditions; but, basically the reverse pressure gradient may be due to either a loss of pressure in the supply main called backsiphonage, or by the flow from a customer's pressurized system through an unprotected cross-connection, which is called backpressure. Thus the term backflow covers both a backsiphonage condition and a backpressure condition. A reversal of flow in a distribution main--or in the customer's system--can be created by any change of system pressure wherein the pressure at the supply point becomes lower than the pressure at the point of use. When this happens in an unprotected situation the water at the point of use will be siphoned back into the system; thus, potentially polluting or contaminating the remainder of the customer's system. It is also possible that the contaminated or polluted water could continue to backflow into the public distribution system. The point at which it is possible for a non-potable substance to come in contact with the potable drinking water system is called a cross-connection. To prevent backflow from occurring at the point of a cross-connection a backflow prevention assembly must be installed. However, it is important the backflow prevention assembly match the particular hydraulic conditions at that location and is suitable to protect against the degree of hazard present. The particular type of backflow preventer appropriate for specific needs will be discussed later. First, it is necessary to understand some basic hydraulics which govern the principles of backflow and cross-connection control.>>

Comparing Cryogenic System Operating Costs

The Copper Tube Handbook

Copper Development Association, Inc.

Flow Through an Orifice

The Mc Nally Institute

Designing Process Piping Systems

Chemical Processing Magazine

<<The design and specification of a fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) piping support system should not be a complicated proposition. Adhering to the manufacturer's design recommendations, a general understanding of the product's strengths and limitations and the application of sound piping practices helps ensure a successful installation. This article looks at some general guidelines for designing with FRP pipe.>>

Storage Tank Piping and Product Handling Systems

ECS Risk Control

<<Aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) usually have aboveground and/or underground piping systems for product loading, unloading and transfer. Important aspects of piping systems for storage tank systems include materials of construction, system design, inspection, maintenance, leak prevention and detection, and standards and guidelines.>>

Bulk Gas Systems

Project Consultants Inc.

<<Bulk gas systems deliver nitrogen, oxygen, argon, hydrogen, or any other gas than can be stored in a liquid phase. The expansion rate of the gas determines the maximum flow when the gas is converted from the liquid phase. This allows large amounts of the gas to be delivered as a "house" gas. This section of the training manual will discuss the methods, types, and materials of bulk gas systems. In addition, this section will discuss sizing methods and design of the house piping systems.>>

Toxic Gas Design

Project Consultants Inc.

<<Toxic gas design has changed over the last two code upgrades, including the design issues brought forth by the adoption of the toxic gas ordinance. This section of the training manual will explain the rules and regulations of the codes and show interpretations of what the codes mean. Along with this section is the TGO Chart showing what Project Consultants Inc. recommends for piping materials, exhaust methods, and gas detection methods.>>

Piping Expansion and Contraction - And How to Deal With It

Henning, Metz, Hartford and Associates, Inc.

<<When designing piping systems, either water or steam, thermal expansion and contraction must be anticipated. Chilled water lines will contract, heating lines will expand. Control of expansion and contraction is imperative and is typically accomplished by using anchors and expansion joints (loops).>>

Piping Expansion and Contraction - How to Design For It
Henning, Metz, Hartford and Associates, Inc.

<<The previous "tip of the week" spoke about forces created by pipe expansion and contraction. Now we discuss how to design to accommodate it - via application of expansion joints and anchors.>>

Value Engineering: Friend or Foe?


<<One good example of over designing in the piping industry are expansion loops. Often times, we see jobs engineered with more expansion loops than necessary and we are able to eliminate them to save the customer money. We do this only if it will allow the system design to be within ANSI B31.1. Expansion loops are one of the more misunderstood elements of a piping system. This is where the logic of "a lot is good, more is better, too much is just enough", comes into play. The fact is, the more loops you have, the more welds you have. The more welds you have, the more chances for eventual leaks in the system. When you remove loops, not only are you saving money for the customer, but you are also eliminating some potential maintenance problems.>>

Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams to Control Biotech Projects Big and Small

John Kossik

<<As Biotech firms start moving their products out of the lab into clinical trials and production, the equipment needed to do this grows quickly. The cost and proper performance of this new equipment are very significant to the success of the product and maybe even the viability of the company as a whole. The major challenges in this transition are making sure that the proper equipment is purchased and installed, and that the overall project costs are controlled. Whether installing a single bioreactor or building a whole mammalian cell culture facility, one of the primary tools used to facilitate this control are Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID’s).>>

Liquid Flow Technology Operations

John Kossik

<<Liquid flow is one of the more prevalent yet most taken for granted operations in a Biotech or Pharmaceutical facility. Unfortunately, without properly designed liquid transport systems the proper function of the production process is very difficult. In order to better design and use these systems we must first understand the physical theory behind them.>>

Pipefitting Tip of the Month, Piping Offset Calculator
A.J.'s Offset Page

<<With a great deal of help from my son we were able to put together a website that I feel can address some interesting piping offset problems. I've been a member of Pipefitters Local 208 of Denver Colorado for 20 years. I teach math and science to our first year apprentices, as well as an Advanced Offset Class for our Journeymen upgrading program. I have written a training manual that I use in the advanced class and thought it might be helpful to have a source for someone to go to when they were challenged by a difficult offset. That was the main purpose for creating this site. The site has several pages that can be used to solve just about any perpendicular, parallel, or rolling offset I can think of.>>

Design for Constructability (The Ten Commandments of KISS Design)

W. J. Boyce (similar to below, better graphics)

<<Designing for constructability will be just a buzzword without the right team. The team must have the right attitude, experience and authority (or the guts to take the authority) to make things happen. It is based on the same philosophy as the "Ten Commandments of KISS Design">>

Front End Change is Required When Designing for Constructability

Hydrocarbon Processing (W. J. Boyce)

<<Change is absolutely essential for progress. Without change we keep building the same old things to the same old standards, which is the very definition of No Progress. The change must be at the front-end of the project, during the conception phase. Changes after the conception phase and during the execution phase will be disruptive rather than constructive to the project. Open minds are also essential for change; closed minds do not accept change. An open mind found that the world is round; the closed minds said he's going to fall off the edge of the world. Change also requires a strong project management team with a project manager that has an executive role. Designing for Constructability is really Just updating old engineering standards, specifications and procedures. Most of these documents were developed years ago when the building materials were expensive and manpower was less expensive. These antiquated practices are costing companies, both owners and contractors, a lot of money on every project. This money doesn't benefit either owner or contractor; it goes right down the drain. When you hear, "We've always done it this way', you can be sure of obsolescence.>>

The Advent of Personal Computer-Based Piping Design

Plant Engineering Magazine

<<The last few years have seen a dramatic increase in the use of personal computers for piping engineering. Low-cost, personal computer-based plant design packages provide the major capabilities of mainframe-based systems and offer them at a far lower price. The personal computer-based plant design market has long been dominated by AutoCAD software. More recently, third-party vendors have developed add-on packages to AutoCAD that provide needed plant design capabilities such as bill of materials creation, automatic generation of isometrics, interference checking, etc. There are many advantages to design software built around the AutoCAD graphics engine. The AutoCAD user interface is widely known, thus minimizing training costs and startup time. The developer does not have to duplicate CAD software functionality, thus reducing program purchase costs. AutoCAD is also available on a wide variety of hardware platforms which the add-on products are usually able to support.>>

Equipment Layout and Plot Plan - Various Considerations

Chemical Engineering World

<<The most economical plant layout is that in which the spacing of the main equipment is such that it minimises interconnecting pipe work and structural steel work. Normally equipment should be laid out in sequence to suit the process flow but exception to this arises from the desirability to group certain tank, pumps or perhaps to isolate hazardous operation according to statutory rules and regulation. The use of single stream or multiple stream flow pattern will affect layout. The major variables affecting the final layout are interconnected pipe sizes, insulation thickness, steel work spacing, matters of operational convenience, safety, ease of erection and maintenance call for the exercise of critical judgement based on the experience and the study of existing plants and their known limitations.>>

Venting and Draining of Piping Systems, Equipment and Vessels

Chemical Engineering World

<<Vents and drains are the critical requirements of any Chemical Process Industry (CPI). Though the basic concept of venting and draining of any system is simple i.e. these are required for removing air or gases and draining of liquids respectively, experience plays a major role for proper provision of vents/drains. Absence or under sized vents/drains may evan cause the failure of plant startup or plant hardwares like equipment, pipelines etc. Various practical aspects for vents/drains commonly used in CPI are discussed in this article.>>

Obstacles in a Laminar Flow

Photographs of Experiments Conducted at MIT

Cooling Tower Piping

Cooling Tower Doctor

<<A well designed piping system is essential for the proper operation of a cooling tower. Two types of systems are examined -- open and closed. In the open cooling tower, system water is open to the atmosphere as it cascades over the wet deck and falls into the cooling tower basin. The closed tower --sometimes called a "closed circuit fluid cooler"-- has the system water contained within a coil and segregated from the water that is evaporating. This is covered near the end of this chapter.>>

Steam Piping Isometric - Design Guidelines

Unipress Corporation

Air Piping Isometric - Design Guidelines

Unipress Corporation

Improve Valve and Pump Sizing

Hydrocarbon Processing

<<Starting from a given piping installation, a control valve and pump will be selected and the correspondence between valve setting and flowrate will be determined. The procedure is a logical sequel to the work of Connell1 and illustrates the interaction between pump, valve and pipe. Connell’s method is extended to include the choice of the control valve and visualization of its operating range. Quality of control can be deduced from the operating diagram. Introduction. Ever since the publication of Connell’s equations in 1987, the correct prediction of pressure drop requirements for control valves has been straightforward. Consequently, the correct pump for a flow controlled piping loop may be specified safely. This still tells nothing about the type and size of valve to be used, its opening position required to reach design operating conditions, and controllability, which is the correspondence between controller-commanded valve settings and operating points.>>

ASTM A106 Gr. B Low Ambient Temperature Applications

Zel Technology Inc.

<<Due to many piping failures, which were believed to be partly caused by brittle fracture of material goverment regulatory agencies are becoming more inclined to check with engineers and owners about whether relevant code requirements have been met. For many years, both Canadian and American engineers have used ASTM A106 Gr.B for flare piping, instrument air and miscellaneous uninsulated piping systems which are exposed to cold ambient temperatures. The cold ambient temperature in Canada, however, is significantly lower than that in most parts of the U.S. Because many older plants in northern regions are originally built without the consideration of the effects of extreme temperatures, the code requirement has never been met and failures were resulted.>>

Overview of Plant Design

<<Plant Design (Process Plant Design, Power Plant Design, etc.) refers to the automation technologies, work practices and business rules supporting the design and engineering of process and power plants. Such plants can be built for chemical, petroleum, utility, shipbuilding, and other facilities. Plant Design is used to designate a general market area by the many vendors offer technologies to support plant design work.>>

The Injector Sparger Gas Contacting System

Explains the Basics of Injectors

<<The Injector Sparger is a simple and efficient way to scrub gasses in a confined area with limited space. These are especially suitable for scrubbing liquid ring vacuum pump exhaust. The principal is simple and well known. By using an injector to entrain the gas in a recirculating liquid stream, the gas is already dispersed by the time it reaches the tank. Proper sparger design within the tank ensures the gas is dispersed in a rotating solution to maximize contact time. An injector is a passive device similar to a venturi or eductor that uses the motive force of a liquid to generate a negative pressure at a small orifice. The motive liquid is passed through a constricted area where the injection chamber is located. The increase in velocity through the injection chamber results in a lower pressure that draw the gas into the passing liquid stream. The gas is entrained in the liquid and carried along as very fine bubbles.>>

Interconnecting Piping

The Trane Company

<<Keep these general guidelines in mind as you review the recommendations specific to suction, liquid, discharge and hot gas bypass lines>>

Allowable Spans for Unsupported Overhang Piping Arrangements

Society of Piping Engineers and Designers

<<The impact of high piping stresses on operating piping systems can be dramatic and costly. Yet for many Piping Designers, piping stress analysis is the least understood area of piping knowledge. A thoroughly analyzed plant will last longer and be more cost effective. Neglecting the impact of the weight of pipe and the thermal expansion of hot pipe can cause significant maintenance problems.>>

Some Impressive CAD Piping Models

Titan Projects Ltd.

Process Piping Design Manual ( Plastic )


Plot Plan Design

Society of Piping Engineers and Designers

<<Plot plans are considered key documents to projects and are normally initiated in the pre-contract, conceptual and development stages of a proposal. After the contract is awarded for engineering, plot plans are developed at a rather rapid pace with very limited information. This early stage plot plan usually is very limited in detail, containing only enough dimensional data to define the outer limits of the available property selected for plant development. Located within the boundaries of the available property, rough equipment sizes and shapes are pictorially positioned. along with anticipated pipe rack configurations, structure shape and rough sizes. The plot plan at this level of detail is then used for constructability evaluation and is normally submitted to the client for approval.>>

Process Industry Practices

Downloadable Specifications and Guideline Papers (Fee-Based)

Steam Condensation-Induced Waterhammer

Kirsner Consulting Engineering

How On-Site Bulk Cryogenic Supply Systems Work

Gas Exchange

<<Cryogenic Tank Systems hold liquefied cryogenic gases and dispense these gases in the form of a liquid or gas as required by the customer. Standard design features of Cryogenic Tank Systems include a pressure building and an economizer circuit. The pressure building circuit of the Cryogenic Tank System automatically increases tank pressure when the pressure falls below set point. When the tank pressure is higher than the desired set point of the cryogenic tank system, the economizer opens. If the customer has a gas use and the economizer is open, gas from the top of the cryogenic tank system is used through the economizer to lower tank pressure.>>

Pipe Fitting Density

Project Management Consultants. Inc.

<<What is pipe fitting density? When an estimator starts a piping estimate, he looks at many different variables, metallurgy, pipe size, pipe schedule or thickness, the linear footage and the number of connections per foot or linear footage per connection. The linear footage per connections is a measurement of the complexity of the piping system. Each connection is a physical item of work that must be done. Some pipe estimating programs use the number of connections per foot normally a decimal number less than one, while others use the inverse term of linear footage per connection. In either case these terms are a measurement of piping complexity or pipe fitting density. In the process industry a normal or average number for pipe fitting density is approximately 4.0 feet/connection or the inverse is approximately 0.25 connections/foot.>>

Engineering Standards and EQC – Why Bother?

Hydrocarbon Processing Magazine

<<Many "industry standards" (e.g., the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) provide design requirements for mechanical equipment used in the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI). So, why do owner companies need their own engineering standards to supplement industry standards? The major engineering and construction contractors, and equipment manufacturers have been building process plants and mechanical equipment for years. They have a wealth of experience. So, why should owner companies review their work?>>

Design Expert System for Auto-Routing of  Ship Pipes

Pacific Conference on Manufacturing '96

<The ship piping system is as important a system in a ship as a blood vessel system is in a human body. Its required performance should be optimized based on engineering, spatial, regulatory, and economic analyses. Piping systems can also be found in the AEC (architecture, engineering, and construction) area, where technology-oriented man-power plays an important role. Previous development efforts for automating the design process are focused on building design-oriented databases. If heuristic design knowledge can also be systematically applied, a good portion of the human decision making process can be replaced by computing power.>>

Effect of Quick Valve Closure on Piping ( Waterhammer )

Becht Engineering Company, Inc.

<<In a piping system transporting liquid, a suddenly stopped flow such as that caused by slamming shut of an inline valve creates surge pressures that are proportional to the speed of sound in the transported liquid. This surge pressure is caused by the need to change the momentum of the fluid that is flowing the pipe. These surge pressures reverberate about the operating pressure of the liquid and gradually decrease over time. The addition of surge pressure on top of the operating pressure could rupture the pipe if it exceeds the burst pressure of the pipe. On the other hand, the pipe could also be in a vacuum if magnitude of the surge pressure exceeds the operating pressure. A vacuum condition may collapse the pipe. Further, a vacuum condition is not desirable because it could cause the formation of pockets of water vapor. When these vapor pockets collapse, the columns of water on either side hammer each other, causing another pressure wave waterhammer with potentially severe overpressure conditions.>>

10 Fluid Power Lessons You Don't Learn in School

Bimba Manufacturing Company

<<Completing engineering school doesn't make you an expert - at least in fluid power. Here's some of the most common fluid power mistakes most courses never cover, and how to avoid them.>>

Pipeline Simulation Group

Predicting Gas Loads, Gas Quality Control, Performance Testing, Flow Simulation- Documentation in PDF Format

Sample Piping and Instrumentation Layout Drawing

Boyce, Graybeal and Sayre, Inc.

Primary Patterns in Two-Phase Pipe Flow

Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, University of Texas at Austin

<<The purpose of this web site is to show, with video and photography, the primary patterns in two-phase pipe flow. The technique is to observe the flow behavior in two clear plexi-glass pipes which are connected in a loop. All the images seen are as a result of experimental data recorded and reproduced. The equipment used is located in the CPE building in the College of Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin. The lab encompasses a well that is five stories high and is used for a wide variety of fluid flow experiments.>>

Photogrammetry Captures Reality for the CPI

Chemical Engineering Magazine

<<Nobody can say that manufacturers of photogrammetry instruments are resting on their laurels. Four years ago, they succeeded in replacing their optical and mechanical surveying equipment -- theodolites -- with film-based solutions that could digitize photos into highly accurate computer-aided design (CAD) diagrams (CE, August, 1995, p. 30). Now, they are introducing laser, digital and video scanners that bypass the painstaking digitizing stage and hook directly into 3-D CAD programs. The result: Engineers can create a ``virtual reality'' equivalent of a plant on their desktops in just seconds.>>

Crude Distillation Unit Process Flow Diagram

ValVerde Corporation

Piping Design, Layout and Stress Analysis

NORSOK Standard

<<NORSOK (The competitive standing of the Norwegian offshore sector) is the industry initiative to add value, reduce cost and lead time and remove unnecessary activities in offshore field developments and operations. The NORSOK standards are developed by the Norwegian petroleum industry as a part of the NORSOK initiative and are jointly issued by OLF (The Norwegian Oil Industry Association) and TBL (Federation of Norwegian Engineering Industries). NORSOK standards are administered by NTS (Norwegian Technology Standards Institution). The purpose of this industry standard is to replace the individual oil company specifications for use in existing and future petroleum industry developments, subject to the individual company's review and application.>>

Catching Up with Fluid Flow

Chemical Processing on the Web

Plant Layout

Chemical Engineering Magazine

<<Engineers may be called upon to develop plant layouts, set the parameters for them, review and approve them, or supervise the people who prepare them. Layout-related decisions affect costs and have environmental and safety implications, so engineers should be knowledgeable about the principles and factors that govern layout. An especially timely factor is the effect of codes, standards, and regulations.>>

Underground Steam and Condensate System Specifications

Stanford Facilities Design and Construction Standards

Piping Design Problems

Chemical Engineering Magazine

<<When designing a new pumping system, it can be extremely difficult to predict potential hydraulic and mechanical problems that can result from faulty equipment design or manufacturing, or suction pumping system design and layout problems. In too many plants, chemical engineers simply specify flow requirements to mechanical engineers and piping designers, without understanding what they actually do. This can have far-reaching consequences, particularly when changing requirements dictate that an existing suction piping system be changed, or that a pump be altered mechanically, e.g., by having its impeller trimmed to reduce head and flow (Box, p. 94). In some cases, it is better to start from scratch with a new pump and redesign the system. Either way, closer collaboration between chemical and mechanical engineers is essential. Here is an overview of some of the basic mechanical engineering principles involved in pump and suction piping system design. Included are discussions on impeller trimming and fitting selection.>>

Chemical Processing on the Web

<<The most important equation used to model flow in piping systems is the energy balance, which has differing forms and can be expressed in different units. Most technical people are familiar with the Bernoulli equation form of the energy balance. The equation's drawback is that it's valid only for an ideal fluid—that is, a fluid that does not experience any frictional losses because of viscosity and interaction with pipe walls. It's advisable to apply a complete energy balance, incorporating all the relevant terms when analyzing or designing piping systems.>>

Chemical Processing on the Web

<<The piping system with the lowest installed price isn't necessarily the best value, because the piping, valves, fittings and supports may cost too much to maintain. Life-cycle costing (LLC) can determine the "real cost of ownership." Rigorous life-cycle costing involves time-value of money and probability-based considerations because no one can predict the interest rate with certainty. But those methods may take too long for quick estimates in a plant. For plants let's look at a simplified approach that can yield fast, reasonable results.>>

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