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What is Anhydrous Ammonia?

NH3.org

Why You Should Avoid Critical Flow in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

Process-Cooling.com

<<For years, design engineers and contractors have used abbreviated refrigerant tables to determine pipeline sizes. Use of “cookbook” pipe-size selections and installation of piping systems with two-dimensional flow diagram drawings have served as invitations for unpredictable liquid and gas flow in refrigeration piping systems. Large systems using remote surge drums for flooded evaporators, remote recirculating tanks or vessels cause liquid slugs when gas expands behind columns of trapped liquid. Multiple liquid slugs are of particular concern where gas pockets could condense rapidly, causing thermoshock, and where slug impact can overstress pipe and valve components when abrupt turns or stoppages occur.>>

Natural Gas Production

Natural Gas Information and Educational Resources Website

Applied Thermodynamics

Taftan Data

<<Applied thermodynamics is the science of the relationship between heat, work, and systems that analyze energy processes. The energy processes that convert heat energy from available sources such as chemical fuels into mechanical work are the major concern of this science. Thermodynamics consists of a number of analytical and theoretical methods which may be applied to machines for energy conversion.>>

The Use of Cryogenic Fluids

CERN

<<The items covered in this Safety Instruction are the following: the hazards of cryogenic liquids in a general sense, precautions to avoid accidents and injuries, the regulations for establishing a formal safety review, operating instructions, training and access permits. Appended is information on first aid.>>

Ethylene Oxide Design of Facilities

EthyleneOxide.com

<<The design of facilities for storing, transporting and processing EO must take into account the flammability, toxicity, and reactivity characteristics of this material. This summary of EO facility design issues reflects not only consideration of its chemical and physical characteristics, but also the practical experience of industry in dealing with those characteristics. Before using this section, it is recommended that the reader review section 5, "Overview of Hazards," since much industry design philosophy has been developed in response to the incidents summarized in that section.>>

Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems

Online NIST Database

Carbon Dioxide

The Wittemann Company Inc.

<<Carbon Dioxide is a chemical compound formed by combining one atom of carbon with two atoms of oxygen and is expressed by the chemical symbol CO2. It can exist in three states: a gas, a liquid or a solid. At normal temperature and pressures, carbon dioxide is a colorless gas with a slightly pungent odor at high concentrations. When compressed and cooled to the proper temperature, the gas turns into a liquid. The liquid in turn can be converted into solid dry ice. The dry ice, on absorbing heat, returns to its natural gaseous state. The gas is heavier than air, with a specific gravity of 1.53 at 21.1°C. When gas under pressure is released to the atmosphere, it will emerge as a faint white mist.>>


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