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The Four Methods of Manufacturing Pipes
ERW, DSAW and Spiral Welded Pipe Descriptions

Foster Piling

Metallurgy - is 316ss Soft or Hard?

Pump Magazine

Pump Magazine

<<Why is stainless steel so good against cavitation? - if it were soft, wouldn't the imploding bubbles erode the material away at no time? The reason for such excellent resistance of stainless steel to cavitation is it work-hardening property.>>

Pressure Ratings for Seamless Pipe

Petroleum Services Association of Canada

Introduction to Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Southern Alberta Institute of Technology

<<There are three general methods used to join or connect lengths of pressure piping. These are by the use of threaded pipe and screwed connections, flanges and welded joints. Each of these methods has certain advantages and disadvantages and each will be discussed in the following sections.>>

ASTM A106 Gr. B Low Ambient Temperature Applications

Zel Technology Inc.

<<Due to many piping failures, which were believed to be partly caused by brittle fracture of material goverment regulatory agencies are becoming more inclined to check with engineers and owners about whether relevant code requirements have been met. For many years, both Canadian and American engineers have used ASTM A106 Gr.B for flare piping, instrument air and miscellaneous uninsulated piping systems which are exposed to cold ambient temperatures. The cold ambient temperature in Canada, however, is significantly lower than that in most parts of the U.S. Because many older plants in northern regions are originally built without the consideration of the effects of extreme temperatures, the code requirement has never been met and failures were resulted.>>

Piping Differences - Past and Present

East Coast Industries, Inc.

<< In recent years, ECI has performed numerous investigations of either very old pipe installed in the early 1900's, or at properties where ss tolerant engineerina combination of old and new pipe exist. We have found the test results a remarkable demonstration of how environmental concerns and government restrictions, combined with cost cutting and leg practices, have greatly reduced the life expectancy of most new piping installations. First and foremost is the obvious superiority in quality and corrosion resistance of pre World War II pipe to that manufactured today - whether foreign or domestic. Our testing of steam systems from 1909 have shown a minimal loss of only perhaps 40% from the original wall thickness. Testing of some galvanized steel domestic water risers from 1920 have shown little if any wall loss. We have certified 80 year old steam condensate pipe, which traditionally suffers from the acidic conditions of condensate requiring frequent replacement, as useful for another 50 years of service.>>

General Description of Seamless Standard and Line Pipe Grades

U. S. Steel Group

Pipe Weight / Water Weight / Water Volume

Henning, Metz, Hartford and Associates, Inc.

Thermomechanically Rolled Flat Products

K. Hulka

<<Steels for large diameter pipe were for many years the most relevant application of the thermomechanical rolling process and many trends in steel development originated from pipe steel development. The economic transport of liquid or gaseous media in pipelines across remote areas with arctic climates or under water has only become feasible with TM-grades. Table I shows the development since the 1960's where by replacing the normalizing process with thermomechanical rolling, strength, toughness, ductility and weldability have all been improved. Furthermore, the transportation of sour gas containing media has also become possible.>>

Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Handbook

Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute

Tube and Pipe Specifications

Juha Haapala's Tubenet

Cryogenic Piping

Vacuum - Jacketed Piping

<<VJP is the preferred piping solution for the safe, reliable, cost-effective transfer of cryogenic liquids -- such as liquefied nitrogen, oxygen, argon, helium, and hydrogen -- from storage tanks to points-of-use within a processing plant.>>

NAPF Standards

Iron Pipe Information

Economical Pipe Sizing [DEAD LINK?]

Queen's University Mechanical Engineering Department

<<In all engineering systems there is a tradeoff between capital cost and operating costs that governs design decisions for the system. As an analogy, consider the decisions in buying a car. A new car will have a high purchase price, but in the short term will have very low operating costs: repairs will be covered by warranty and gas and oil consumption should be reasonable. A much older car will have a much lower purchase price, but the ongoing costs of gas, parts and repairs will offset that advantage. The best decision, on a cost basis, probably lies somewhere in the middle, perhaps in purchasing a two or three year old car. Of course, other factors like cash flow will affect this decision. In piping systems the dominant costs are the capital cost of installing the system, the cost of the energy to operate the system and some allowance for maintenance and other overheads. The objective is to select a pipe size that minimizes the total annual cost for a given service.>>


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