<<The dimensions of solder-joint fittings were established around 1950 based on testing that was performed by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). NBS discovered that solder1 was not very strong and that plenty of overlap (i.e., socket depth) was needed to ensure that soldered joints did not come apart in service.>>White Paper - Plasma Cutting
Stainless Plate Products, Inc.
<<Plasma arc cutting was developed 20 years ago primarily for cutting stainless steel and aluminum. Although favorable economically, mild steel was seldom cut with this process because of three fundamental limitations: relatively poor cut quality, equipment reliability, and inability of the earlier cutting machines to handle plasma cutting speeds. As a result of these limitations, plasma cutting did not encounter rapid growth until after Water-injection Plasma Cutting was introduced in 1970. This relatively new process differs from conventional, "dry" plasma cutting in that water is injected around the arc. The net result is greatly improved cut quality on virtually all metals, including mild steel. Today, because of advances in equipment design and improvement in cut quality, previously unheard of applications, such as multiple torch cutting of mild steel, are becoming commonplace. This paper reviews the concept of the water constricted arc. First the fundamentals and the limitations of the conventional plasma cutting process are reviewed. Then the technique of Water-injection is described and typical cutting speeds are presented. Finally, the process capabilities in terms of improved cut quality and equipment capability are specified.>>Lincoln Electric Archives
<<If you want in-depth welding information, this is the place to go. Highly recommended.>>Pipe Welding
SweetHaven Publishing Services
<<In the following paragraphs, pipe welding positions, pipe welding procedures, definitions, and related information are discussed.>>Orbital Welding of Stainless Steel Tubing for Biopharmaceutical, Food and Dairy Applications
Arc Machines, Inc.
<<Orbital welding has been proven to be a very effective method for joining of stainless steel tubing for systems in which the products flowing through them must be maintained in a clean and/or sterile condition. The capability of making smooth, crevice-free welds that maintain uniformity and consistency for thousands of joints have made orbital welding technology the accepted joining technology for the semiconductor and biopharmaceutical industries in the United States. Crevice-free welds are essential for controlling the growth of microorganisms in hygienic piping systems.>>Latest Developments in Welding Specifications for Sanitary Process Piping
Arc Machines, Inc.
<<Industry standards are important for assuring consistent quality throughout an industry. In the 1950s, the dairy industry in the United States recognized the importance of good-quality, full penetration welds for maintaining the cleanability of piping systems in dairy plants. The demands of the semiconductor industry as well as the bioprocess industry for clean, smooth product contact surfaces have led to advances in process piping technology and equipment fabrication technology, including the use of orbital welding.>>Putting a Stop to Hot Work Losses (PDF Document)
Brookhaven National Library
<<Cutting, grinding, brazing, welding, soldering, thawing pipe, applying roofing materials with torches— all examples of hot work—involve open flames, sparks or heat. A flame from an oxyacetylene cutting torch can reach up to 6,000°F (3,316°C). Sparks can fly or roll great distances and ignite combustible storage, dust accumulations or oily residues. Smoldering material hidden from sight can suddenly burst into flame long after work is completed and personnel have left the area. Heat conducted by hot work on one side of a wall can ignite combustible material on the other side.>>Fundamentals of Orbital Tube Welding
Pro-Fusion Technologies, Inc./TubeNet
<<Orbital welding was first used in the 1960's when the aerospace industry recognized the need for a superior joining technique for aerospace hydraulic lines. A mechanism was developed in which the arc from a tungsten electrode was rotated around the tubing weld joint. The arc welding current was regulated with a control system thus automating the entire process. The result was a more precision and reliable method than the manual welding method it replaced. Orbital welding became practical for many industries in the early 1980's when combination power supply/control systems were developed that operated from 110 VAC and were physically small enough to be carried from place to place on a construction site for multiple in-place welds. Modern day orbital welding systems offer computer control where welding parameters for a variety of applications can be stored in memory and called up when needed for a specific application. The skills of a certified welder are thus built into the welding system, producing enormous numbers of identical welds and leaving significantly less room for error or defects.>>Weld Failure Leads to Explosion
<<In March 1994, a meat processing plant in the southeast experienced an explosion in one of their freezer rooms which resulted in over $500,000.00 of property damage. Fortunately, the explosion occurred around midnight on a Sunday so there were few employees at the plant and no one was injured. An initial investigation by plant personnel determined a weld in the refrigeration system failed and leaked refrigerant.>>Welding's Vital Part in Major American Historical Events
American Welding SocietyJoining Copper-Nickel Alloys
Copper Development Association
<<Copper-nickel alloys find many applications in marine, power, electrical and chemical industries. Typical hardware fabricated by welding are condenser and heat exchanger components, seawater piping, distillation apparatus and, demonstrating the excellent antifouling qualities of Alloy UNS C70600, the hull of an ocean going commercial fishing vessel, the Copper Mariner.>>Field Welding Instructions for Ductile Iron Pipe
American Cast Iron Pipe Co.Welding and Inspection of Piping
NORSOK StandardDeepwater Pipeline Welding by Remote Control Looks Feasible
Pipe Line and Gas Industry
<< A remotely controlled welding process is being developed for subsea pipe line tie-in and repair at depths well beyond the reach of divers. The technique shows promise to weld at the deepest depths proposed for installations, where pressure reduces a conventional arc's effectiveness.>>Welding Terminology